Properties of the argentine anchovy and whitemouth croaker muscle proteins obtained by alkali solubilization process

Irene Rodrigues Freitas, Carlos Prentice-Hernández


The aim of this study was to evaluate functional properties and microbiological characteristics of recovered proteins of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) and whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) through the process of alkaline solubilization and isoelectric precipitation, using different solubilization at pH 11 (NaOH and KOH) and precipitation at pH 5.5 (HCl and H3PO4) reagents. Analyses of water holding capacity were carried out (at pH 3,5,7,9 and 11), oil holding capacity and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The water holding capacity was lowest at pH 5. The low value of the proteins recovered by alkaline solubilization process also indicates changes in the protein. The highest oil holding capacity was observed in whitemouth croaker concentrates (NaOH/H3PO4) at 5.6 ml oil.g protein-1. As for microbiological analyses, results showed no Salmonella in 25 g for all treatments and maximum count of 2.75 x 102 CFU.g-1 for coagulase positive Staphylococcus for the muscle of anchovy concentrated. The protein concentrate obtained by combining NaOH/H3PO4 showed better functional quality. This process is an alternative to recover fish protein of low commercial value that may be used as an ingredient in foods


Fish; solubilization; funcionaty; quality

Full Text:

PDF Docs.


A.P.H.A - American Public Health Association. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. Washington, DC, 676 p. 2001.

ALU’DATT, M.H.; RABABAH, T.; EREIFEJ, K.; ALLI, I.; ALRABABAH, M.A. Effects of barley flour and barley protein isolate on chemical, functional, nutritional and biological properties of Pita bread. Food Hydrocolloids, v.26, p.135-143, 2012.

BÁRZANA, E.; GARIBAY-GARCÍA, M.; Production of fish protein concentrates in Fisheries processing: biotechnological applications, Chapman & Hall: London, 1994.

BATISTA, I.; PIRES, C.; NELHAS, R. Extraction of sardine proteins by acidic and alkaline solubilization. Food Science Technology International, v.13, p.189-194, 2007.

BRASIL. Agencia Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. RDC nº 12 de 2 de janeiro de 2001. Diário Oficial da União. Brasília, 2001.

BRYANT, C. M.; McCLEMENTS, D. J. Influence of xanthan gum on physical characteristic of heat-denatured whey protein solutions and gels. Foods Hydrocolloids, v.14, n.4, p.383-390, 2000.

CENTENARO, G. S.; PRENTICE-HERNÁNDEZ, C.; SALAS-MELLADO, M.; NETTO, F. M. Efeito da concentração de enzima e de substrato no grau de hidrólise e nas propriedades funcionais de hidrolisados protéicos de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri). Química nova, v.32, n.7, p.1792-1798, 2009.

CHAUD, S.G.; SGARBIERI, V.C. Functional (techological) properties of yeast cellular wall of alcoholic fermentation and it is glucan, mannan and glucoprotein fraction. Food Science and Technology, v.26, p.369-379, 2006.

FONKWE, L.G; SINGH, R. K. Protein recovery from mechanically deboned turkey residue by enzymic hydrolysis. Process Biochemistry, v.31, n.6 p.605-616, 1996.

FONTANA, A.; CENTENARO, G. S.; PALEZI, S. C.; PRENTICE-HERNÁNDEZ, C. Obtenção e avaliação de concentrados proteicos de corvina (Micropogonias furnieri) processados por extração química. Quimica Nova, v.32, n.9, p.1-5, 2009.

GEHRING, C.K.; GIGLIOTTI, J.C.; MORITZ, J.S.; TOU, J.C.; JACZYNSKI, J. Functional and nutritional characteristics of proteins and lipids recovered by isoelectric processing of fish by-products and low-value fish: a review. Food Chemistry, v.124, p.422-431, 2011.

HULTIN, H. O.; KELLEHER, S. D. Process for Isolating a Protein Composition from a Muscle Source and Protein Composition. Rockport, MA: Advanced Protein Technologies, 1999.

KRISTINSSON, H. G.; THEODORE, A. E; DEMIR, N.; INGADOTTIR, B.; A comparative study between acid-and alkali-aided processing and surimi processing for the recovery of proteins from channel catfish muscle. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, v.70, n.4, p.C298 -C 306, 2005.

NOLSØE, H.; UNDELAND, I. The acid and alkaline solubilization process for the isolation of muscle proteins: state of the art. Food Bioprocess Technology, v.2, p.1–27, 2009.

REGENSTEIN, J. M; JAUREGUI, C. A; BAKER, R. The effect of pH, polyphosphates and defferent salt on water retention properties of ground trout muscle. Journal of Food Biochemistry, v.8, n.2, p.123-131, 1984.

SATHIVEL, S.; BECHTEL, P. J. Properties of soluble protein powders from Alaska Pollock (Theragra chalcogramma). International Journal of Food Science and Technology, v.41, n.5, p.520-529, 2006.

SATHIVEL, S.; BECHTEL, P. J. A comparison of physical and rheologic properties of arrowtooth flounder protein made using three different extracting processes. Journal of Food Biochemistry, v.32, p.557-575, 2008.

TAHERGORABI, R.; BEAMER, S. K.; MATAK, K. E.; JACZYNSKI, J. Functional food products made from fish protein isolate recovered with isoelectric solubilization/precipitation. LWT – Food Science and Technology, v.48, p.89-95, 2012.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


Follow us


J. Bioen. Food Sci., Macapá, AP, Brazil. eISSN 2359-2710

  Licença Creative Commons 

The journal is licensed with Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial-CompartilhaIgual 4.0 Internacional


Address for correspondence

Professor Victor Hugo Gomes Sales

Journal of Bioenergy and Food Science

Federal Institute of Amapá, Campus Macapá.

Rodovia BR 210 KM 3, s/n Bairro Brasil Novo. CEP: 68.909-398. Macapá, Brazil.

Phone: +55 (96) 3198-2150 |