Physico-chemical characteristics of some Indian and Yemeni Honey
The present study aimed to evaluate the physio-chemical properties of four Indian and Yemeni types of honey Coorg and Kashmiri honey (India), Sidr and Acacia honey (Yemen). The honey samples appeared to conform to the European Legislation (EC Directive 2001) for most of the parameters. The moisture content of the samples varied between 13.5 to 19.5g/100g, Indian honey were the highest moisture content. PH values ranged between 4.7 to 5.6, all tested samples were light acidic. Electrical conductivity ranged from 0.13 to 1.4mS /cm. The color intensity values ranged between 137.3 to 624.7mAU. HMF content fluctuated between 15.4 to 19.9 mg / kg. The ash content varied from 0.05 to 0.68%. The total protein content varied between 0.61 to 1.9 %. The diastase activity values ranged between 9.6 to 11.9 DN. The Kashmiri honey showed the highest value of reducing sugars (64.6 g/100g), while Acacia honey showed the lowest value (59.9 g/100 g) The estimated fructose/glucose ratio for all investigated samples was ranged from 1. 03 to 1.37 and estimated glucose/water ratio was ranged from 1.48 to 1.90. Potassium was found to be the predominant mineral in all honey tested. The highest Potassium content (2176.4 mg/kg) was found in Sidr Yemeni honey. The heavy metals were not detected in all honey samples, that the tested honey was safe for human consumption. The results suggest that Indian and Yemeni honey could be beneficially used as a functional or nutraceutical substance.
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